Artificial Neural Networks Applied as Molecular Wave Function Solvers


We use artificial neural networks (ANNs) based on the Boltzmann machine (BM) architectures as an encoder of ab initio molecular many-electron wave functions represented with the complete active space configuration interaction (CAS-CI) model. As first introduced by the work of Carleo and Troyer for physical systems, the coefficients of the electronic configurations in the CI expansion are parametrized with the BMs as a function of their occupancies that act as descriptors. This ANN-based wave function ansatz is referred to as the neural-network quantum state (NQS). The machine learning is used for training the BMs in terms of finding a variationally optimal form of the ground-state wave function on the basis of the energy minimization. It is relevant to reinforcement learning and does not use any reference data nor prior knowledge of the wave function, while the Hamiltonian is given based on a user-specified chemical structure in the first-principles manner. Carleo and Troyer used the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), which has hidden units, for the neural network architecture of NQS, while, in this study, we further introduce its replacement with the BM that has only visible units but with different orders of connectivity. For this hidden-node free BM, the second- and third-order BMs based on quadratic and cubic energy functions, respectively, were implemented. We denote these second- and third-order BMs as BM2 and BM3, respectively. The pilot implementation of the NQS solver into an exact diagonalization module of the quantum chemistry program was made to assess the capability of variants of the BM-based NQS. The test calculations were performed by determining the CAS-CI wave functions of illustrative molecular systems, indocyanine green, and dinitrogen dissociation. The simulated energies have been shown to converge to CAS-CI energy in most cases by improving RBM with an increasing number of hidden nodes. BM3 systematically yields lower energies than BM2, reproducing the CAS-CI energies of dinitrogen across potential energy curves within an error of 50 μEh.

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation